The total absence of a mandible is called AGNATHIA. More commonly, the mandible is present, but just shortened. When this happens, it is called MANDIBULAR BRACHYGNATHIA.

This often is not associated with any clinical signs but if there is malocclusion, that is, if the dental arcades don't match up, then the animal can't prehend or masticate properly, and ill thrift results.
Here are some photos of mandibular brachygnathia:
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