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The endoscopic evaluation of fish and other aquatic animals is not new, but is nevertheless a rapidly developing field. The equipment required depends upon the size of the animal and the procedure to be performed, but for most ornamental fish a single entry technique using the 2.7mm system permits examination and biopsy or sampling from most major organs including the intestinal tract, anterior and posterior kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, swim bladder, gills, and testes/ovaries.
Endoscoping a freshwater tropical oscar.
Left: Gill tumor in a koi carp. Right: Ovarian tumor in a gold fish.
More recently, endoscopic surgery has been developed. Here a group of surgeons from the College of Veterinary Medicine and US Fish & Wildlife Service are performing endoscopic ovariectomy on a sturgeon as part of an endangered species re-introduction project.
Surgery team performing a three-entry endoscopy technique in a sturgeon.
Left: Anesthetized sturgeon with three ports, one for the endoscope and camera, and two for the endoscopy instruments. Right: Endoscopic view of the ovary being removed using dissecting bipolar forceps and forceps.
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