Non-infectious Gastritis
Toxic Gastritis
Cantharidin Toxicity
Blister beetle toxicityis one example of a toxic gastritis. Not the beetle itself, but its toxin, cantharidin, causes necrosis and hemorrhage to the delicate gastric mucosa.
This is the stomach mucosa of a horse that died of cantharidin toxicosis. Note the severe hyperemia of the mucosa and the focal areas of ulceration.
The beetles live within hay and forage and when the hay is ingested, the beetle is also ingested. The beetle contains an irritating toxin, cantharidin, that will cause ulceration and inflammation in the GI and urinary tracts.
Horses are especially susceptible to blister beetle poisoning. Consumption of 25 to 300 beetles can kill a mature horse. Cattle and sheep are much less susceptible, but blister beetles will reduce digestibility of hay and may throw cattle off feed.
Cantharidin is a stable compound that withstands decomposition even when it is dried or heated; usually the beetles are long dead by the time the horse eats the hay.
Affected livestock suffer symptoms that include colic, tenesmus (straining), elevated temperature, depression, increased heart and respiratory rates, dehydration, sweating, and diarrhea. Because the toxin is absorbed and then excreted with the urine, intense inflammation and ulceration of the urinary tract is a common sign of poisoning. Death may occur within 24 hours.
Salicylate Gastritis
Aspirin and other salicylates can be irritating to the gastric mucosa. In people, we know that aspirin can cause gastric ulcers. Before ulceration occurs, however, severe, diffuse hyperemia can be seen on the gastric mucosa.
Can you think of endogenous toxins that may cause gastritis?
This dog had a BUN of 132, CREATININE of 6.7, and a URINE S.G. = 1.014. The History also included VOMITING.

Vomiting may be a clinical sign associated with gastric problems. What is the probable cause of vomition in this dog?

What condition are we possibly looking at?

Other causes of toxic gastritis include arsenic, thallium, phosphate fertilizers, zinc and bitterweed.
This is the stomach from a puppy who died after ingesting several pennies, and what we believe to be a monopoly piece. Although the gastritis in this picture is mild, what kind of toxicity could this dog have died from? Click here to find out.
Hypertrophic gastritis
This is a stomach from a dog with hypertrophic gastritis. Note the thickened rugae and also the hemorrhage.
Another photograph of another dog with the same disease.
Chronic hypertrophic gastritis is a rare disease in dogs The condition is characterized by marked thickening of the gastric rugae that may resemble the gyri in the cerebrum of the brain. The histologic lesion is glandular hyperplasia in which mucous cells proliferate and parietal cells decrease (and may be absent).
Pyloric Stenosis
Constriction of the pyloric opening occurs primarily in dogs but can be seen in other species as well. The cause may be either anatomic (i.e. an obstruction) or physiologic (i.e. a functional stricture). These conditions may be acquired or congenital and the presenting complaint is usually recurrent vomition and poor growth.
This is the pylorus from an animal with pyloric stenosis. Note the stenotic area. This was most probably a congenital lesion. Other causes are polyps, tumors and chronic hypertrophy of the gastric mucosa in that area.

This ends our overview of gastric displacements and non-infectious gastritis.

Click here for a brief quiz on the material you have just covered

Then, letís move on to take a brief look at a few infectious causes of gastritis.
Infectious Gastritis >>