Another CONSEQUENCE of URINARY
DISEASE is abnormal substances (or excessive amounts) in
urine. Do you recall these definitions?
the presence of excess protein in the urine. A small amount of
protein normally is excreted each day (< 100 mg).
Proteinuria may result
from pre-renal, renal or post-renal abnormalities. The dipstick (shown
here) may be used as a screening test for proteinuria. Protein excretion
may also be expressed as the [urine protein/urine creatinine ratio].
the presence of hemoglobin in the urine. So, the urine is red.
which cause lysis of red blood cells will result in hemoglobinuria.
Note the dark discoloration of the urine in this bladder.
the presence of myoglobin in the urine.
is AZOTURIA - as seen in horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis (tying up; Monday Morning Disease).
from damage to skeletal muscle with release of myoglobin into
the blood (myoglobinemia) and subsequent excretion in the urine
Special tests are
required to distinguish myoglobin from hemoglobin.
the presence of glucose in the urine. The renal threshold for glucose
is low, and thus elevated blood glucose levels will result in glucosuria.
There is an easy dipstick test for glucose. Did you remember that glucosuria
may result in emphysematous cystitis?
the presence of crystals in the urine - usually seen in the sediment.
These may predispose to urolithiasis.
pus in the urine - or the presence of inflammatory cells in the
urine sediment (neutrophils as seen here).
the presence or red blood cells in the urine.
may have originated from the kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra.
Remember they may lyse if urine concentration is dilute.