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Enterotoxemia in Sheep and Goats

Posted by: Murray E. Hines II, DVM, PhD, DACVP
Enterotoxemia, also known as overeating or pulpy kidney disease, is a condition caused by Clostridium perfringens type D. These bacteria are normally found in the soil and as part of the normal microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy sheep and goats. Under specific conditions, these bacteria can rapidly reproduce in the animal’s intestine, producing large quantities of toxins. The epsilon toxin produced by C. perfringens Type D is the most significant toxin in producing the disease. Young animals are most susceptible. Sudden and high mortality rates may occasionally occur in lambs and kids. Although adult animals are also susceptible to enterotoxemia, they develop immunity due to frequent exposure to low doses of these toxins. Continue Reading →

Veterinary Forensic Pathology Cases - Who Can You Call?

Posted by: Doris M. Miller, DVM, PhD
The importance of the veterinarian’s role in animal cruelty cases has recently been highlighted in the news media and numerous journals. In December, the AVMA endorsed a document called “Practical Guidance for the Effective Response by Veterinarians to Suspected Animal Cruelty, Abuse and Neglect” which is intended to aid veterinarians in establishing individual, practice-specific policies and procedures that best serve the needs of the animal, the client, the veterinarian and the community. Continue Reading →

Canine Mast Cell Tumor Update

Posted by: Paula M. Krimer, DVM, DVSc, DACVP
Canine mast cell tumors have been graded in North America predominantly by the Patnaik system since the system was proposed in 1984.1 The goal of a grading system is to provide an accurate prognosis and guidance for proper therapeutic intervention. This system classifies tumors into grade I (well-differentiated), II (intermediate), or III (poorly differentiated) based on criteria outlined in Table 1. However, most mast cell tumors fall into the grade II category, and the prognosis and course of treatment often remain uncertain. Some tumors do not meet the criteria for a grade III tumor due to low mitotic rate, yet are still biologically aggressive. In addition, there is some variation in how individual pathologists use and apply this grading system. Continue Reading →

Renal Pathology Consultation Service

Posted by: Cathy Brown, VMD, PhD, DACVP and Scott A. Brown, VMD, PhD, DACVIM
Kidney disease is a leading cause of illness and death in dogs and cats. Treatment of acute and chronic kidney disease is most effective when the disease is recognized early in its course and when treatment is instituted with knowledge of the underlying disease process. To aid in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, the Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory is now offering renal diagnostic and treatment expertise through its newly established Renal Pathology Consultation Service. Continue Reading →

Ante-Mortem Diagnosis of Canine Distemper

Posted by: Jeremiah T. Saliki, DVM, PhD, DACVM
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects and causes disease in domestic dogs and many wild carnivores, including coyotes, ferrets, foxes, lions, mink, raccoons, and skunks. Although sustained vaccination of domestic dog populations has greatly reduced the incidence of canine distemper, the disease is still prevalent worldwide and now occurs in sporadic outbreaks. Young puppies between 3 and 6 months of age are more susceptible to infection and undergo more severe disease than adult dogs. However, non-vaccinated older dogs are also highly susceptible to infection and disease. Continue Reading →

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