Small Animal Medicine & Surgery, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zoological Medicine Service

Research Interests

Zoological medicine and surgery, incl reptiles, birds, small mammals, and fish.

Minimally invasive endoscopy and endosurgery

Dr. Divers research interests have varied widely, and in addition to mentoring graduate students, he has also worked collaboratively with biologists and ecologists in the Galapagos Conservancy, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and US Army Corps of Engineers, as well as with veterinarians from Zoo Atlanta, The Georgia Aquarium, Georgia Sea Turtle Center, Georgia Southern Raptor and Wildlife Center.

He and his colleagues have validated endoscopic and endosurgical techniques for use in reptiles, birds, small mammals and fish.He is keen to facilitate the use of minimally-invasive techniques in exotic animal, zoo and wildlife research studies and conservation projects.

Educational Background

  • De Facto Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine (Zoo Health Management), 2013
  • Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (by thesis), 2010
  • Founder Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine (Herpetology), 2009
  • Diplomate of the American College of Zoological Medicine, 2004
  • Diplomate, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Zoological Medicine, London, 2000
  • Certificate, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Zoological Medicine, London, 1998
  • Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, 1994
  • Bachelor of Medical Sciences (physiology), Kings College, University of London, 1991

Born in England, Stephen Divers graduated from the Royal Veterinary College in London in 1994. He obtained the Diploma in zoological medicine from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS), is an RCVS recognized Specialist in Zoo & Wildlife Medicine, a Diplomate of both the American and European Colleges of Zoological Medicine, a European Veterinary Specialist in Zoological Medicine (zoo health management), and an International Fullbright Specialist in zoological medicine. He obtained his RCVS fellowship (PhD) for his work on exotic animal endoscopy and endosurgery. He is a past-president of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, scientific editor of the Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery and an associate editor for the Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine. He has served on the ABVP subspecialties in small mammal and reptile/amphibian specialties, helped create the new zoological companion animal (exotic pet) examination through the ACZM, and the new European College of Zoological Medicine, herpetology and zoo health management subspecialties.

Selected Publications

  • Divers SJ and Mader DR (2014). Current Therapy In Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier Publishing.
  • Divers SJ (2013). Anaesthesia of zoological species (exotic pets, zoo, aquatic, and wild animals). In: Clarke KW, Trim CM and Hall LW (eds). Veterinary Anaesthesia, 11th edition. Elsevier Publishing. Pp 535-569.
  • Divers SJ (2012) Exotic mammal diagnostic and surgical endoscopy. In: Quesenberry K and Carpenter J (eds.) Rabbits, Ferrets and Rodents – Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Third edition. Elsevier Publishing. Pp 485-501
  • Divers SJ (2010). Endoscopy and endosurgery. Veterinary Clinics of North America – Exotic Animal Practice, Elsevier, Philadelphia. Guest editor. Volume 13, number 2, 171-331
  • Divers SJ (2010). Reptiles. In: Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th edition. Merck & Co Inc, NJ, 1745-1779.
  • Munhofen JL, Jimenez DA, Peterson DL, Camus AC, and Divers SJ (2014). Comparing ultrasonography and endoscopy for early gedner identification of juvenile siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). North American Journal of Aquaculture, 76(1):14-23.
  • Shepard MK, Divers SJ, Braun C, and Hofmeister EH (2013) Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures. Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia,40:590-598.
  • Wu P, Wu X, Jiang TX, Elsey RM, Temple BL, Divers SJ, Glenn TC, Yuan K, Chen MH, Widelitz RB, and Chuong CM (2013). Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,110, E2009–E2018.
  • Divers SJ, Boone SS, Berliner A, Kurimo EA, Boysen KA, Johnson D, Killgore KJ, George SG, and Hoover JJ (2013). Non-lethal acquisition of large liver samples from free-ranging river sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) using single-entry endoscopic biopsy forceps. J Wildlife Disease, 49(2):321-331.
  • Boone SS, Hernandez SM, Camus AC, Peterson DL, Jennings CA, Shelton JL, and Divers SJ. (2013). Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society,142(3): 649-659.
  • Boone SS, Divers SJ, Camus AC, Peterson DL, Jennings CA, Shelton JL, and Hernandez SM. (2013). Evaluation of long-term physiological and pathological effects of intracoelomic transmitters in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 33(5):869-877.
  • Innis C, Feinsod R, Hanlon J, Stahl S, Oguni J, Boone S, Schnellbacher R, Cavin J, and Divers SJ (2013).Coelioscopic orchiectomy can be effectively and safely accomplished in chelonians. Veterinary Record 172(20):526
  • Hernandez SM, Schumacher J, Lewis SJ, Odoi A, and Divers SJ. (2011). Selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana). AJVR 72(11):1519-1526.
  • Hernandez SM, Tuberville TD, Frank P, Ritchie BW, Stahl SJ, McBride MM, Buhlmann KA, and Divers SJ (2010). Health and reproductive assessment of a free-ranging Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) population following translocation. Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery 20:84-93.
  • Knafo SE, Divers SJ, Rivera S, Cayot LJ, Tapia-Aguilera W, and Flanagan J. (2011). Sterilisation of hybrid Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) for island restoration. Part 1: female endoscopic oophorectomy under ketamine-medetomidine anaesthesia. Veterinary Record, 168:47-51. Published Online First: 10 January 2011 doi:10.1136/vr.c6520. Paper determined to be especially important and was fast tracked for publication.
  • Rivera S, Divers SJ, Knafo SE, Martinez P, Cayot LJ, Tapia-Aguilera W, and Flanagan J (2011). Sterilisation of hybrid Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) for island restoration. Part 2: male phallectomy under intrathecal anaesthesia. Veterinary Record, 168:78-81. Published Online First: 17 January 2011 doi:10.1136/vr.c6361. Paper determined to be especially important and was fast tracked for publication.
  • Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, and Camus A (2010). Evaluation of diagnostic coelisocopy including liver and kidney biopsy in freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta). J Zoo Wildl Med, 41(4):677-687.
  • Divers SJ, Papich M, McBride M, Stedman NL, Koch TF, Perpinan D, Hernandez SM, Barron GH, Pethel M, and Budsberg S (2010). Intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Am J Vet Res, 71(11): 1277-1283.
  • Divers SJ (2010). Endoscopic oophorectomy in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): The future of preventative sterilizations. J Exot Pet Med, 19(3):231-239.
    Alworth L, Hernandez SM, and ‡Divers SJ (2011). LaboratoryReptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 50(1): 11-26.
  • Chinnadurai SK, DeVoe R, Koenig A, Gadsen N, and Divers SJ (2010). Comparison of an implantable telemetry device and an oscillometric monitor for measurement of blood pressure in anesthetized and unrestrained green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Vet Anaesth Analg, 37(5):434-439.
  • Gladden JN, Divers SJ, Brainard BM, Shelton JL, Camus AC (2010). Evaluation of isoeugenol for anesthesia in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Am J Vet Res, 71(8):859-866.
  • Hernandez-Divers SM, Gammonds DJ, Gottdenker N, Yabsley MJ, Mengak MT, Conner LM, and Divers SJ (2010). Technique, safety and efficacy for intra-abdominal transmitters in nine-banded Armadillos. J Wildlife Man, 74(1):174–180.
  • Divers SJ, Boone SS, Hoover JJ, Boysen KA, Killgore KJ, Murphy CE, George SG, Camus AC (2009). Field endoscopy for identifying gender, reproductive stage and gonadal anomalies in free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) from the Lower Mississippi River. J Appl Ichthyology, 25:68-74.

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