Small Animal Medicine & Surgery, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zoological Medicine Service

Research Interests

Zoological medicine and surgery, incl reptiles, birds, small mammals, and fish.

Minimally invasive endoscopy and endosurgery

Dr. Divers research interests are broad, and in addition to mentoring graduate students, he has also worked collaboratively with biologists and ecologists in the Galapagos Conservancy, LaVanille Nature Park Mauritius, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and US Army Corps of Engineers, as well as with veterinarians from Zoo Atlanta, The Georgia Aquarium, Georgia Sea Turtle Center, Georgia Southern Raptor and Wildlife Center.

He and his colleagues have validated endoscopic and endosurgical techniques for use in reptiles, birds, small mammals and fish. He is keen to facilitate the use of minimally-invasive techniques and offers both on-line and in-person endoscopy training courses.  He also has mobile endoscopy equipment available for collaborative work, nationally and internationally.

Educational Background

  • De Facto Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine (Zoo Health Management), 2013
  • Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (by thesis), 2010
  • Founder Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine (Herpetology), 2009
  • Diplomate of the American College of Zoological Medicine, 2004
  • Diplomate, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Zoological Medicine, London, 2000
  • Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, 1994
  • Bachelor of Medical Sciences (physiology), Kings College, University of London, 1991

Born in England, Stephen Divers graduated from the Royal Veterinary College in London in 1994. He obtained the Diploma in zoological medicine from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS), is an RCVS recognized Specialist in Zoo & Wildlife Medicine, a Diplomate of both the American and European Colleges of Zoological Medicine, a European Veterinary Specialist in Zoological Medicine (zoo health management), and an International Fullbright Specialist in zoological medicine. He obtained his RCVS fellowship (PhD) for his work on exotic animal endoscopy and endosurgery. He is a past-president of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, past scientific editor of the Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery and an associate editor for the Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine. He has served on the ABVP specialties in small mammal and reptile/amphibian, helped create the new zoological companion animal (exotic pet) examination through the ACZM, and the new European College of Zoological Medicine, herpetology and zoo health management specialties.

Selected Publications


  • Divers SJ (2024). Endoscopy of the avian respiratory tract. Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery Vol 2 (eds B Speer and Y Van Zeeland). Elsevier publishing.
  • Divers SJ and Stahl SJ (2018). Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edition. 1511pp, 3000 illustrations/photos, 187 chapters. Elsevier Publishing.
  • Divers SJ and Proenca LM (2015). Endoscopy and Endosurgery. Veterinary Clinics of North America – Exotic Animal Practice. Guest editor. Volume 18, number 3. Elsevier Publishing.
  • Divers SJ. 2022. Reptiles. In: Merck Veterinary Manual. 12th edition. Merck & Co Inc, NJ.
  • Steinberg JD and Divers SJ. 2022. Hematology of testudines. In: Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology (eds Brooks MB, Harr KE, Seelig DM, Wardrop KJ, and Weiss DJ), 7th edition. Wiley Blackwell. Pp1219-1227.
  • Sladakovic I and Divers SJ (2021). Surgery and endoscopy. In: Clinical Fish Medicine (eds Hatfield C and Clayton LA, eds). Wiley publishing, ISBN 9781119259558. Pp213-232.
  • Divers SJ, and Sladakovic I (2019). Exotic mammal diagnostic and surgical endoscopy. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery (eds Quesenberry KE, Orcutt CJ, Mans C, and Carpenter J), 4th edition. Elsevier publishing. Pp 485-501.
  • Divers SJ(2013). Anaesthesia of zoological species (exotic pets, zoo, aquatic, and wild animals). In: Clarke KW, Trim CM and Hall LW (eds). Veterinary Anaesthesia, 11th edition. Elsevier Publishing. Pp 535-569.


  • Divers, SJ and Brandy BA (2023). Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians White Paper: Antibiotic Stewardship Policy. Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery. 33(1): 61-64
  • Morrison HL, Rasys AM, Quandt JE, Divers SJ. Retrospective assessment of general anesthesia-related challenges, morbidity, and death in snakes: 139 cases (2000-2022). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2023 Jan 19;261(4):536-543. doi: 10.2460/javma.22.10.0477. PMID: 36656677.
  • Divers SJ, Barbosa A, Ellis LE, Innis C and Gibbons P (2022). Endoscopic sexing in turtles and tortoises: 467 cases (2007–2017). Vet Rec. 2022;e1795.
  • Clark JR, Camus AC, Comolli J, Divers SJ and Gendron KP (2022). MRI of the live fish brain at 3 Tesla: Feasibility, technique and interspecies anatomic variations. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2022; 1- 11.
  • Sladakovic I, Brainard B, Divers SJ and Brooks MB (2022). Coagulation testing in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) with development of prothrombin time assays using reptile and avian thromboplastin. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2022; 32: 685– 689.
  • Comolli J and Divers SJ. 2021. Respiratory diseases of snakes. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 24 (2), 321-340.
  • Aguilar LAB, Divers SJ, Barozzi MCM, Walth G, Weyna A, Radisic R, Gottdenker NL, and Gendron K (2021). Effect of positioning on coelomic radiography with and without contrast in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). JHMS 31(1): 73-81.
  • Kehoe S, Divers SJ, Mayer J, Comolli J, Jasper SL, and Arnold RD (2022). Pharmacokinetics of Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery, 32(3):198-207.
  • Comolli J, Divers SJ, Lock B, Camus MS (2021). Comparison of protein electrophoresis and biochemical analysis for the quantification of plasma albumin in healthy bearded (Pogona vitticeps). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 52(1): 253-258.
  • Kehoe S, Divers SJ, Mayer J, Comolli J, Guilherme G (2020). Efficacy of Single-Dose Oxfendazole to Treat Oxyurid Nematodiasis in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Herpetological Medicine & Surgery, 30(3):137-141.
  • Comolli JR, Schnellbacher RW, Blas-Machado U, Quandt J, Beaufrère, H, Mayer J and Divers SJ (2020). Comparison between endotracheal intubation and a supraglottic airway device in spontaneously ventilating New Zealand white rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Record, 187(10):e84-e84.
  • Munhofen JL, Jimenez DA, Peterson DL, Camus AC, and Divers SJ (2014). Comparing ultrasonography and endoscopy for early gender identification of juvenile siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). North American Journal of Aquaculture, 76(1):14-23.
  • Shepard MK, Divers SJ, Braun C, and Hofmeister EH (2013) Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures. Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia,40:590-598.
  • Wu P, Wu X, Jiang TX, Elsey RM, Temple BL, Divers SJ, Glenn TC, Yuan K, Chen MH, Widelitz RB, and Chuong CM (2013). Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,110, E2009–E2018.
  • Divers SJ, Boone SS, Berliner A, Kurimo EA, Boysen KA, Johnson D, Killgore KJ, George SG, and Hoover JJ (2013). Non-lethal acquisition of large liver samples from free-ranging river sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) using single-entry endoscopic biopsy forceps. Journal of Wildlife Disease, 49(2):321-331.
  • Boone SS, Hernandez SM, Camus AC, Peterson DL, Jennings CA, Shelton JL, and Divers SJ. (2013). Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society,142(3): 649-659.
  • Boone SS, Divers SJ, Camus AC, Peterson DL, Jennings CA, Shelton JL, and Hernandez SM. (2013). Evaluation of long-term physiological and pathological effects of intracoelomic transmitters in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 33(5):869-877.
  • Innis C, Feinsod R, Hanlon J, Stahl S, Oguni J, Boone S, Schnellbacher R, Cavin J, and Divers SJ(2013).Coelioscopic orchiectomy can be effectively and safely accomplished in chelonians. Veterinary Record, 172(20):526
  • Hernandez SM, Schumacher J, Lewis SJ, Odoi A, and Divers SJ. (2011). Selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 72(11):1519-1526.
  • Knafo SE, Divers SJ, Rivera S, Cayot LJ, Tapia-Aguilera W, and Flanagan J. (2011). Sterilisation of hybrid Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) for island restoration. Part 1: female endoscopic oophorectomy under ketamine-medetomidine anaesthesia. Veterinary Record, 168:47-51. Published Online First: 10 January 2011 doi:10.1136/vr.c6520. Paper determined to be especially important and was fast tracked for publication.
  • Rivera S, Divers SJ, Knafo SE, Martinez P, Cayot LJ, Tapia-Aguilera W, and Flanagan J (2011). Sterilisation of hybrid Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) for island restoration. Part 2: male phallectomy under intrathecal anaesthesia. Veterinary Record, 168:78-81. Published Online First: 17 January 2011 doi:10.1136/vr.c6361.
  • Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, and Camus A (2010). Evaluation of diagnostic coelisocopy including liver and kidney biopsy in freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta). J Zoo Wildl Med, 41(4):677-687.
  • Divers SJ, Papich M, McBride M, Stedman NL, Koch TF, Perpinan D, Hernandez SM, Barron GH, Pethel M, and Budsberg S (2010). Intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Am J Vet Res, 71(11): 1277-1283.
  • Chinnadurai SK, DeVoe R, Koenig A, Gadsen N, and Divers SJ (2010). Comparison of an implantable telemetry device and an oscillometric monitor for measurement of blood pressure in anesthetized and unrestrained green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Vet Anaesth Analg, 37(5):434-439.
  • Gladden JN, Divers SJ, Brainard BM, Shelton JL, Camus AC (2010). Evaluation of isoeugenol for anesthesia in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Am J Vet Res, 71(8):859-866.
  • Divers SJ, Boone SS, Hoover JJ, Boysen KA, Killgore KJ, Murphy CE, George SG, Camus AC (2009). Field endoscopy for identifying gender, reproductive stage and gonadal anomalies in free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) from the Lower Mississippi River. J Appl Ichthyology, 25:68-74.

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